on video How Jet Engines Work



The history of jet engines can be traced back to the first century AD, when Heron of Alexandria invented a simple steam engine called aeolipile, which means the ball of Aeolus [2][3] (the Greek god of wind), and it uses the power of steam through two opposite jets, which makes the ball rotate quickly stiff around its axis. As is known is the beginning of the use of mechanical force. The simplicity of the possibilities for the practical applications of Heron's invention could not identify the jet engine as required, so it was just a curiosity.

Jet propulsion began figuratively with the advent of rockets in China in the 11th century. Rockets began in a modest manner for use in fireworks, then rapidly developed into a form of weaponry, but this technology stopped and did not evolve [3]. In 1633, the Ottoman scientist Lagari Hasan Çelebi took off with what was described as a cone-shaped missile and landed with wings with a wonderful landing on the ground, which was rewarded by obtaining a high position in the Ottoman army [4], but that was a kind of acrobatics, nothing more.

The problem is that these missiles are so simple to manufacture that they are ineffective at low speeds and cannot be used by air. It was replaced by the piston engine in 1930 and in its various forms (fixed diameter and rotary diameter, cooled with water or air), and it was the only form available for aircraft and was acceptable for the low efficiency of aircraft at that time, and this was what was available.

But engineers began to realize that the piston engine is limited in capacity in the event of reaching the maximum performance that can be obtained, and the limit lies mainly in the efficiency of the fan [5], which, as he sees it, reaches the maximum peak when the fan end approaches the speed of sound. If we want to develop the efficiency of the engine, as well as the aircraft, then the efficiency must increase and overcome barriers. The method is to develop piston engine designs, or to produce a completely new and different form of power machinery. This development movement has gone beyond the stage of the gas turbine engine and produced the so-called jet engine, which is the second revolution in the world of aviation since the first Wright Brothers flight.

A jet engine is an engine that expels fluids (water or air) at high speed to produce a driving force based on the principle of Newton's third law of motion. This broad definition of jet engines also includes jet turbines, turbofans, rockets, piston jets, pulse jets, and jet pumps. But in common use, the jet engine means the Breton engine for the gas turbine cycle, or the gas turbine for short, and it has a gas compressor powered by air or water for it and the remaining energy produces propulsion or driving force. People have come to know that the gas turbine is defined as one of the applications separate from the jet engine, instead of saying in a more correct way that it is part of the jet engines that are internal combustion engines, but does not show any form of combustion outside the engine.

Jet engines are mainly used for long-range aircraft, as old aircraft used a jet turbine engine that was not as efficient as required, which led to modern models of these jet aircraft using turbofan engines with a large side shunt, which helped increase speed, longer range and better fuel efficiency than Other transportation vehicles. Even the amount of consumption of these jet engines from global consumption amounted to 7.2% in 2004 [1].

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