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on video How does electricity work? Principle of operation

 



In the modern world, electricity is an essential part of everyday life. In fact, it's probably impossible to count all the times we use electricity during the day. As soon as we get up in the morning, we use electricity to toast our bread, to listen to the radio, to refrigerate our orange juice. The electricity powers the light in the classroom and in the offices where we spend the day. The clothes we wear, even the cars we drive, are made using machines that run on electricity.To see where the electricity comes from, just look inside an aluminum wire. The problem is that what we are looking for is much too small to be visible to the naked eye. If one could see past the protective coating and shiny surface of the aluminum wire, one could see that the wire is made of tiny particles. They are the atoms, the building blocks of everything that makes up the universe.


If we could look closely at an atom, we could see that it itself is made up of particles even smaller than itself. Some of these particles are called electrons. Electrons usually gravitate around the center, or nucleus, of the atom. Sometimes, however, the electrodes are projected beyond the outer orbit of the atom. They then become what are called “free” electrons.


Any material usually has free electrons, capable of passing from one atom to another. Some materials, such as metal, contain a large number of free atoms. They are called conductors. Conductors can carry electric current. Other materials, such as wood or rubber, have few free electrons. They are called insulators.


If we can make the free electrons of a conductor jump in the same direction and at the same time, then we produce a flux, or current, of electrons. It is an electric current. In an electrified wire, free electrons jump between atoms and create an electric current from one end to the other. But how can the electrons jump in the same direction and at the same time? Using magnets.


At the end of each magnet, there are invisible lines of force called magnetic fields. If you run a straight wire through a magnetic field, the force pushes free electrons from one atom to another, creating an electric current. If several coils of wire are passed rapidly and continuously through the field of a powerful magnet, a large amount of electricity can be produced.



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