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Natural gas is a mixture of naturally occurring hydrocarbon gases consisting primarily of methane, but typically comprising varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.

They form when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure beneath the Earth's surface over millions of years. The energy that plants originally obtained from the sun is stored in the form of chemical bonds in the gas.Natural gas is a fossil fuel that is used as an energy source in heating, cooking and generating electricity. It is also used as a fuel for vehicles and as a chemical raw material in the manufacture of plastics and other organic chemicals of commercial importance.
 Natural gas based on fossil fuels is a non-renewable resource.

Natural gas is found in rock formations deep underground or associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal bed and coal methane.

Petroleum is another resource and fossil fuel found near and with natural gas. Most natural gas has been created over time by two mechanisms: biotic and thermodynamic. Biogas is formed by methanogenic organisms in swamps, swamps, landfills and shallow sediments.Deep in the earth, at greater temperature and pressure, thermal gas is generated from buried organic matter.

In petroleum production, gas is often burned as flare gas. The World Bank estimates that more than 150 cubic kilometers of natural gas are flared or vented annually. Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, most, but not all, must be processed to remove impurities, including water, to meet marketable natural gas specifications.

 By-products of this process include: ethane, propane, butane, pentane, high molecular weight hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide (which can be converted to pure sulfur), carbon dioxide, water vapor, and sometimes helium and nitrogen.

Natural gas is often informally referred to as "gas," particularly when compared to other energy sources such as oil or coal. However, it is not to be confused with benzene, especially in North America, where the term benzene is shortened in colloquial usage for gas.

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