on video How does a Stepper Motor work?


What is a stepper motor
Stepper motors are motors that rotate in fixed intermittent steps. The movement of the second hand of an analog clock is a familiar example of this feature in practice. The angle and speed of rotation of stepper motors can be controlled simply and accurately by means of input pulses. This capability is put to use in a wide range of equipment and electronic devices.

For more information about stepper motors in general, please visit the following page:

What is a stepper motor?

Advantages and disadvantages of stepper motors
The main features of stepper motors are as follows.

Accurate positioning can be achieved using open-loop control
Angle of rotation is determined by the number of pulses (digital input), therefore position control is simple
Can rotate at low speeds
Excellent ability to remain locked in position when halted
Their ability to provide simple and accurate positioning without the need for a sensor to detect shaft position is one of the major advantages of stepper motors.

Prone to loss of synchronization when the load changes unexpectedly, such as when operating at high speed or with sudden changes in speed
Prone to vibration and noise
Current continues to flow while holding position (when the rotor is locked in position), resulting in high power consumption and heat generation
Although simple to control, stepper motors do not cope well with sudden changes in load. Their design also makes them prone to vibration and noise. However, these flaws are not fatal and can be overcome with appropriate control.

Control of stepper motors
Stepper motors are open-loop controlled. This means that control is performed by the one-way passing of command signals from the higher-level controller to the motor. This makes stepper motor control very simple, eliminating the need for sensors and feedback.

When using the standard pulse-series control technique, the stepper motor is operated by having a programmable controller (pulse generator) that generates pulses that are input to a driver, which in turn supplies the drive current to the motor.

If advanced control is not required, it is also possible for the controller function (pulse generation) to be incorporated into the driver. In this case, a programmable controller with its own I/O unit is used to send start and stop commands to the driver. The driver then controls the supply of drive current to the stepper motor on the basis of these commands.

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