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The demand for and consumption of energy is expected to increase, especially for fossil fuels. In Thailand, fossil fuels, also known as conventional energy, are widely used in various forms of transportation and industrial plants because of their convenience and ability to provide a high heating value. Fossil fuels are a nonrenewable resource which continues to be used by humans, with demand steadily increasing. Thus, these fossil fuels will soon be entirely consumed. For this reason, many countries are beginning to rely more on alternative energy or renewable energy sources.
Thailand still lacks any significant alternative sources of energy. Moreover, it produces insufficient energy to meet the demand, resulting in the import of over 49% of its consumed energy in 2017 [1]. The value of crude oil and imported petroleum products in Thailand increased by 39.8% and 23.0%, in 2016 and 2017, respectively, due to the higher oil demand. Thailand has mainly imported crude oil from Middle Eastern countries. In Thailand, the share of energy from renewable sources is expected to increase steadily. To increase this share and reduce primary energy consumption, waste plastic oil has been proposed as a new option for use in transportation. While there is less demand for transportation energy, this initiative represents a move toward the direction of diversification of fuels through energy conversion technologies. It also focuses on using oil from plastic waste in diesel engines. Plastic waste is a petroleum waste that comes from both household and industrial sectors, leading to a large amount of plastic waste. These wastes require hundreds of years for decomposition and are a burden to manage. Most plastic is recycled using mechanical recycling, while only 2% of chemicals are recycled [2]. Generally, the waste management process that is currently popular is the landfill method, which normally requires a lot of landfill space and has an impact on the environment, resulting in soil pollution.
Plastic waste is composed of hydrocarbons, which are the main component of conventional fuels. This raises the possibility of recycling these plastic wastes through their conversion into fuel. Products can also be obtained from the production process, in addition to being used as an energy source similar to conventional fuels. It is also able to provide environmental benefits in terms of waste management for maximum benefits and reduction in the amount of plastic waste, reduced plastic waste disposal, and also minimizing the problem of finding places for garbage landfills. The use of plastic waste as a renewable energy feedstock also helps in mitigating the energy crisis.
Several studies have investigated the use of waste plastic oil in diesel engines as an alternative fuel. Waste plastic pyrolysis oil has properties that are similar to diesel fuel, including the heating value, density, and cetane index, and can be used as a substitute for diesel fuel [3]. The literature also shows that diesel engines use waste plastic oil to provide stability in performance and a similar efficiency [4]. The different types of plastics are also basically impacted by their different compositions. Recent studies have shown that the oil product of HDPE (high-density polyethylene), mixed with LDPE (low-density polyethylene), has a higher heating value than LDPE, PP (polypropylene), and HDPE alone. It was revealed that LDPE produces the highest yields [5]. Waste plastic oil has also been studied with regard to engine power, and it was found that there was no significant difference from diesel fuel [6]. The thermal efficiency of waste plastic oil was higher when compared to diesel fuel [7,8]. However, one study examined the exhaust emissions of a four-cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine running on diesel blended with different ratios of waste plastic oil and found that the amount of nitrogen oxides increased because of the longer ignition delay [9] and that there was greater hydrocarbon emission in comparison to diesel fuel [10].
In addition, it is expected that biodiesel will be used as a renewable energy source in the energy transportation sector. A great deal of research supports the use of biodiesel as a suitable alternative in replacing diesel fuel. The presence of oxygen in fuel molecules is expected to result in cleaner biodiesel combustion, leading to improvements when considering emission. However, there are only a few reports on the use of biodiesel mixed with waste plastic oil. For example, Ramesha et al. [11] reported that B20 algae biodiesel blended with waste plastic oil can be a suitable fuel for diesel engines. The waste plastic oil-biodiesel blend showed an increase of 16% in brake thermal efficiency with respect to diesel engines. Additionally, the carbonaceous gas emissions, including hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, were decreased, but nitrogen oxides slightly increased, as compared to diesel fuel. In the study by Senthilkumar et al. [12], waste plastic oil was mixed with Jatropha biodiesel for diesel engines. The brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption of the waste plastic oil-biodiesel blend were higher than the waste plastic oil. The hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions decreased when waste plastic oil was blended with Jatropha biodiesel.
In the present work, waste plastic oil-biodiesel blends were used as an alternative fuel in a diesel engine without any engine modifications. The selected biodiesels were produced from castor oil and palm oil through a transesterification process and were then blended with waste plastic oil. Palm is an important economic crop and main feedstock for biodiesel production in Thailand. To avoid the use of edible feedstock, castor oil was considered because of its benefits of high oxygen content in fuel molecules and excellent fuel lubricity. These properties are attributed to the presence of ricinoleic acid, which is the main component of castor oil [13]. The oxygen in the fuel molecules contributes to better combustion processes in terms of emissions. In this study, we evaluated the effect of biodiesel addition to waste plastic oil in terms of basic physical and chemical fuel properties of the resulting fuel mixture, mainly focusing on fuel lubricity and viscosity, engine performance, combustion characteristics, and exhaust gas emissions of a single-cylinder diesel engine. In the section of combustion characteristics, basic parameters comprised of in-cylinder pressure and crank angle were recorded during the engine test. After that, heat release rate of test fuels was calculated on the basic principles of the first law of thermodynamics, which the specific heat ratio was calculated based on the in-cylinder pressure and combustion chamber volume through the assumption of polytropic process. 


 

The demand for and consumption of energy is expected to increase, especially for fossil fuels. In Thailand, fossil fuels, also known as conventional energy, are widely used in various forms of transportation and industrial plants because of their convenience and ability to provide a high heating value. Fossil fuels are a nonrenewable resource which continues to be used by humans, with demand steadily increasing. Thus, these fossil fuels will soon be entirely consumed. For this reason, many countries are beginning to rely more on alternative energy or renewable energy sources.
Thailand still lacks any significant alternative sources of energy. Moreover, it produces insufficient energy to meet the demand, resulting in the import of over 49% of its consumed energy in 2017 [1]. The value of crude oil and imported petroleum products in Thailand increased by 39.8% and 23.0%, in 2016 and 2017, respectively, due to the higher oil demand. Thailand has mainly imported crude oil from Middle Eastern countries. In Thailand, the share of energy from renewable sources is expected to increase steadily. To increase this share and reduce primary energy consumption, waste plastic oil has been proposed as a new option for use in transportation. While there is less demand for transportation energy, this initiative represents a move toward the direction of diversification of fuels through energy conversion technologies. It also focuses on using oil from plastic waste in diesel engines. Plastic waste is a petroleum waste that comes from both household and industrial sectors, leading to a large amount of plastic waste. These wastes require hundreds of years for decomposition and are a burden to manage. Most plastic is recycled using mechanical recycling, while only 2% of chemicals are recycled [2]. Generally, the waste management process that is currently popular is the landfill method, which normally requires a lot of landfill space and has an impact on the environment, resulting in soil pollution.
Plastic waste is composed of hydrocarbons, which are the main component of conventional fuels. This raises the possibility of recycling these plastic wastes through their conversion into fuel. Products can also be obtained from the production process, in addition to being used as an energy source similar to conventional fuels. It is also able to provide environmental benefits in terms of waste management for maximum benefits and reduction in the amount of plastic waste, reduced plastic waste disposal, and also minimizing the problem of finding places for garbage landfills. The use of plastic waste as a renewable energy feedstock also helps in mitigating the energy crisis.
Several studies have investigated the use of waste plastic oil in diesel engines as an alternative fuel. Waste plastic pyrolysis oil has properties that are similar to diesel fuel, including the heating value, density, and cetane index, and can be used as a substitute for diesel fuel [3]. The literature also shows that diesel engines use waste plastic oil to provide stability in performance and a similar efficiency [4]. The different types of plastics are also basically impacted by their different compositions. Recent studies have shown that the oil product of HDPE (high-density polyethylene), mixed with LDPE (low-density polyethylene), has a higher heating value than LDPE, PP (polypropylene), and HDPE alone. It was revealed that LDPE produces the highest yields [5]. Waste plastic oil has also been studied with regard to engine power, and it was found that there was no significant difference from diesel fuel [6]. The thermal efficiency of waste plastic oil was higher when compared to diesel fuel [7,8]. However, one study examined the exhaust emissions of a four-cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine running on diesel blended with different ratios of waste plastic oil and found that the amount of nitrogen oxides increased because of the longer ignition delay [9] and that there was greater hydrocarbon emission in comparison to diesel fuel [10].
In addition, it is expected that biodiesel will be used as a renewable energy source in the energy transportation sector. A great deal of research supports the use of biodiesel as a suitable alternative in replacing diesel fuel. The presence of oxygen in fuel molecules is expected to result in cleaner biodiesel combustion, leading to improvements when considering emission. However, there are only a few reports on the use of biodiesel mixed with waste plastic oil. For example, Ramesha et al. [11] reported that B20 algae biodiesel blended with waste plastic oil can be a suitable fuel for diesel engines. The waste plastic oil-biodiesel blend showed an increase of 16% in brake thermal efficiency with respect to diesel engines. Additionally, the carbonaceous gas emissions, including hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, were decreased, but nitrogen oxides slightly increased, as compared to diesel fuel. In the study by Senthilkumar et al. [12], waste plastic oil was mixed with Jatropha biodiesel for diesel engines. The brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption of the waste plastic oil-biodiesel blend were higher than the waste plastic oil. The hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions decreased when waste plastic oil was blended with Jatropha biodiesel.
In the present work, waste plastic oil-biodiesel blends were used as an alternative fuel in a diesel engine without any engine modifications. The selected biodiesels were produced from castor oil and palm oil through a transesterification process and were then blended with waste plastic oil. Palm is an important economic crop and main feedstock for biodiesel production in Thailand. To avoid the use of edible feedstock, castor oil was considered because of its benefits of high oxygen content in fuel molecules and excellent fuel lubricity. These properties are attributed to the presence of ricinoleic acid, which is the main component of castor oil [13]. The oxygen in the fuel molecules contributes to better combustion processes in terms of emissions. In this study, we evaluated the effect of biodiesel addition to waste plastic oil in terms of basic physical and chemical fuel properties of the resulting fuel mixture, mainly focusing on fuel lubricity and viscosity, engine performance, combustion characteristics, and exhaust gas emissions of a single-cylinder diesel engine. In the section of combustion characteristics, basic parameters comprised of in-cylinder pressure and crank angle were recorded during the engine test. After that, heat release rate of test fuels was calculated on the basic principles of the first law of thermodynamics, which the specific heat ratio was calculated based on the in-cylinder pressure and combustion chamber volume through the assumption of polytropic process. 


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