How does a Transformer work?


How does a Transformer work?

A voltage transformer is used to increase or decrease the voltage of an electric current.

It transforms this voltage so that the electric current, routed from the production plants to the various users, is transported in complete safety.

At the output of the power plant, the current produced will have a very high voltage, this is necessary to avoid too much energy loss. Once the electricity is delivered to its destination, each type of user will need a different voltage, depending on the machinery and electrical equipment used. Factories will therefore need a much higher voltage than individuals. It is the transformers that will allow each type of user to have the voltage he needs.

How does an electrical transformer work?

An electrical transformer consists of a core and at least two coils of copper wire that do not touch each other and both have different number of windings.


The operation of an electrical transformer is based on the principle of magnetic induction, namely: when an electric current passes through a wire, it generates a magnetic field around it. But when this magnetic field is around another wire, it in turn generates an electric current inside that wire. This is what happens in a transformer. Current flows into the first coil (primary coil) and then passes to the other (secondary coil) by magnetic induction.


It is the number of windings (that is, turns the wire makes) of each coil that will determine whether the transformer increases or decreases the voltage of the current. If the primary coil has a lower number of windings than the secondary coil, the transformer will increase the voltage and vice versa. This is why we speak of the primary and secondary voltage of a transformer, the voltage not being the same at the input of the primary coil as at the output of the secondary coil.


The different types of transformers

There are several types of voltage transformer according to their number of cores and coils, namely:

single-phase transformers (1 core, 2 coils);

two-phase transformers (2 cores, 4 coils);

three-phase transformers (3 cores, 6 coils).

There are also other variants such as isolation transformers which secure circuits to allow professionals to work on distribution networks, test transformers reserved for testing new devices, etc.

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